How Income Tax Return is calculated on salary in India

Income tax in India is levied on the total income of individuals, as outlined in the Income Tax Act, making it crucial to grasp this concept for compliance. The tax rates are determined by the relevant Finance Act, underscoring the importance of using a current income tax calculator for precise calculations.

The residential status of an individual is key in determining taxable income, necessitating careful attention during the income tax login process. This guide simplifies navigating through the complexities of how income tax return is calculated, facilitating smoother interactions with the income tax department.

What is an Income Tax Return?

An income tax return (ITR) is a form that individuals and businesses fill out to report their income and tax liabilities to the government. It’s like a financial report card that tells the government how much money you earn and how much tax you owe based on that income.

Income tax returns help ensure that everyone pays their fair share of taxes and allow the government to collect the necessary funds to provide public services and infrastructure.

Step-by-step guide on how income tax return is calculated

To calculate your taxable income in India, follow these steps:

  • Identify your Gross Salary:
    • Start by determining your gross salary, which includes your basic salary, allowances, bonuses, and any other taxable components.
    • This is the first step to calculating tax on salary and understanding how to calculate income tax effectively.
  • Subtract Exemptions:
    • Deduct exemptions such as House Rent Allowance (HRA) and Leave Travel Allowance (LTA) from your gross salary to accurately determine your taxable income.
  • Standard Deduction:
    • Apply the standard deduction of INR 50,000 directly from your gross salary.
  • Incorporate other Income:
    • Add any income from other sources, like rental income or interest from deposits, to your salary to get a comprehensive view of your total income.
  • Utilize Deductions under Section 80:
    • Subtract deductions available under various sections like Section 80C, Section 80CCD (1B), Section 80D, and Section 24 from your gross income.
    • Remember, contributions towards 80C and premiums paid for health insurance under 80D, as well as interest on home loans, can significantly reduce your taxable income.
  • Determine Net Taxable Income:
    • After accounting for all eligible deductions, you arrive at your net taxable income.
  • Calculate Tax Liability:
    • Pay tax on your net taxable income as per the applicable tax rates, which vary based on age and income.
    • Utilizing an income tax calculator can help you navigate through the different tax slabs efficiently.
  • Claim Rebate if applicable:
    • If your total taxable income after deductions does not exceed INR 5 lakh, claim a rebate under Section 87A to reduce your tax liability.

Remember, the process involves calculating gross salary, identifying non-taxable allowances, applying the standard deduction, and including other income before subtracting eligible deductions to find the net taxable income. Understanding how income tax return is calculated is crucial for this.

Deductions and Exemptions

Exploring the various deductions and exemptions available can significantly reduce one’s taxable income, thereby lowering the overall tax liability. Familiarizing yourself with these tax-saving strategies is beneficial for financial planning.

  • Investment Deductions:
    • Sections 80C, 80CCC, and 80CCD (1) offer deductions up to INR 1.5 lakh on investments like EPF, PPF, ELSS, NSC, and life insurance premiums, making them essential components of smart investment strategies.
    • Section 80D enhances your tax-saving toolkit by providing deductions for health insurance premiums, offering INR 25,000 for self/family and INR 50,000 for senior citizen parents.
  • Loan and Education:
    • Maximize your savings with deductions on home loan interest under Section 24, up to INR 2 lakh for self-occupied properties, making homeownership more financially accessible.
    • Section 80E champions education by allowing deductions for interest on education loans with no upper limit, valid for up to 8 assessment years, supporting your educational aspirations.
  • Other Deductions and Exemptions:
    • House Rent Allowance (HRA) provides tax exemption based on specific conditions, offering significant benefits for those living in rented accommodations and making rent payments more manageable.
    • Leave Travel Allowance supports your domestic travel adventures by covering travel expenses, exempting only the travel costs within a specified block of years, and encouraging exploration and family bonding.
    • The Standard Deduction of INR 50,000, applicable for both old and new tax regimes, simplifies tax computations, making tax planning less daunting for everyone.

In addition to these, special exemptions like food coupons, mobile reimbursements, and relocation allowances provide further tax relief for salaried individuals, easing the financial burden and enhancing employee benefits. These deductions and exemptions not only offer immediate financial relief but also promote long-term savings and investments, supporting your health and education, and contributing to economic growth.

How to file your Income Tax Return?

Filing your Income Tax Return involves understanding which form applies to your financial situation, a crucial step in effective tax filing and ensuring compliance with tax return regulations.

  • Preparation
    • Collect necessary documents including Permanant Account Number (PAN), Aadhaar, bank statements, Form 16, and donation receipts. This step is crucial for smooth e-filing on the Income Tax Portal.
  • Choosing the right ITR Form:
    • ITR-1 (SAHAJ): For individuals earning below INR 50 lakhs from salary or pension, with one house property.
    • ITR-2: For NRIs, company directors, or individuals with income from capital gains, foreign income, or more than one house property.
    • ITR-3: For professionals and proprietors.
    • ITR-4 (Sugam): For those under the presumptive taxation scheme.
    • ITR-5 to ITR-7: For partnerships, companies, and special entities respectively.
  • E-filing Process:
    • Log in to the Income Tax Portal using your PAN, which can auto-fill most details with features.
    • Ensure you have your Aadhaar registered mobile number handy for e-verifying the return.
    • The ‘Pay Later’ option allows completing the filing process before making any tax payments.


In conclusion, tax payers who are filing their Income Tax should be aware on how income tax return is calculated based on their income. Mandatory ITR filing is required if your gross income exceeds the exemption level before considering deductions or if certain financial thresholds are met, like depositing over INR 1 crore in a current account.

Expert consultant like 24efiling can help you filing your Income Tax Return on time with accurate and simplified process. Filing tax returns not only complies with legal requirements but also aids in loan applications, credit card applications, and visa processes.

1. How income tax return is calculated in India?

The formula is;
Gross Salary – Deductions = Taxable Income;
Income Tax = (Taxable Income * Applicable Tax Rate) – Tax Rebate.

2. What is the simplest way to understand income tax computation?

To understand and compute your income tax straightforwardly, follow these steps:
Firstly, list all forms of your income, including salary, rental income, capital gains, interest income, and profits from business or profession. Next, exclude any income that is exempt under the law.

3. What is the income tax rate for a monthly salary of INR 50,000 in India?

For an individual earning a yearly salary of INR 50,000 in India, the total tax payable would be INR 6,000. This results in a net annual income of INR 44,000, or INR 3,667 per month.
The average tax rate for this income level is 12.0%, and the marginal tax rate is also 12.0%. The marginal tax rate indicates that any additional income will be taxed at this same rate of 12.0%.

4. How is income tax return calculated?

Income tax return is calculated by totaling all income sources and subtracting allowable deductions and exemptions. Tax rates are then applied to determine the tax liability

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